When investors are bearish and speculation in puts gets excessive, the put/call ratio will be high. The table below presents the daily options volume for May 17, 2002, from the Cboe Options Exchange . The chart shows the data for the put and call volumes for equity, index, and total options. If the PCR value is lower than 1, this means call volume is higher than put volume. Traders can use the indicator to determine market sentiment because it gives information about the overall expectations of a decline or an advance.

put to call ratio

Also unique to Barchart, Flipcharts allow you to scroll through all the symbols on the table in a chart view. While viewing Flipcharts, you can apply a custom chart template, further customizing the way you can analyze the symbols. It is the default investment strategy used to calculate the put-call option. A put option is about selling a security at a pre-specified price, and a call option is the right to purchase an asset at a prefixed price. A sentiment indicator is a graphical or numerical indicator designed to show how a group feels about the market or economy.

Index, Equity or Total

A Put/Call Ratio at its upper extremities would show excessive bearishness because put volume would be significantly higher than call volume. Excessive bearishness would argue for optimism and the possibility of a bullish reversal. The Put/Call Ratio is an indicator that shows put volume relative to call volume. Put options are used to hedge against market weakness or bet on a decline.

It’s an indicator that’s best made use of during market extremes, traders try to identify periods where a reversal could occur in the markets. By tracking the daily and weekly volume of puts and calls in the U.S. stock market, we can gauge the feelings of traders. While a volume of too many put buyers usually signals a market bottom is near, too many call buyers typically indicates a market top is in the making. The bear market of 2002, however, has changed the critical threshold values for this indicator. In this article, I will explain the basic put/call ratio method and include new threshold values for the equity-only daily put/call ratio. Traders generally use the Put Call Ratio as a contrarian indicator when the values touch extremely high levels.

And sure enough, with call-relative-to-put buying volume at extreme highs, the market rolled over and began its ugly descent. The red and green vertical lines mark the signals with the red and green arrows marking the S&P 500 at signal time. A bullish signal occurs when the indicator moves above the bearish extreme (.95) and the back below. A bearish signal occurs when the indicator moves below the bullish extreme (.80) and back above. Because this moving average can trend for extended periods, it is important to wait for confirmation with a move back above or below the threshold. Waiting for this confirmation would have prevented a long position when the indicator moved above .95 in May.

  • The put call ratio chart shows the ratio of open interest or volume on put options versus call options.
  • There are several ways to use PCR in a trading strategy and most traders use the indicator in combination with other analysis techniques.
  • Here is this secret report card, the put call ratio of Nifty Option Chain is as close to actually having this information as a trader is ever going to find..

For intraday trading – live PCR trend can be extremely reliable indicator. A PCR above 1 indicates that put volume has exceeded the call volume. Put-call ratio is one of such financial tools which prove useful for investors in more than one way. To understand the application and role of this financial measurement one needs to be well-versed with its basics. Here, we have elucidated the nitty-gritty of the same including the put call ratio formula and other facts.

There is no fixed number, historical data needs to be compared i.e. one month or 3-month averages. The formula is very simple to calculate – take the put options Open Interest and divide by the Open Interest of calls. In the above chart we have automated the calculations for you so you can get live view of what market is thinking. High PCR means extreme put buying by small and medium investors but at the same time, it also means aggressive selling by more savvy traders. However, one can also calculate the same by dividing put trading volume by call trading volume on a particular day.


The put-call ratio is a measurement that is widely used by investors to gauge the overall mood of a market. The reliability of the of the indicator is quite high since it is based on the outstanding position of the traders in the market. But, when you use the indicator and how you interpret it is most important factor. Please read all scheme related documents carefully before investing. Therefore, to make the most of this indicator, traders must know where to find this ratio and how to use it to make informed decisions.

This section discribes the current traded volume of all traded options on the stock market. It’s helpful to watch the put-call ratio to see how the market views recent events or earnings. When the ratio is at extreme levels, it might phillip capital uk review indicate an overly bearish or an overly bullish sentiment. The put-call ratio can be an indicator of how the market views recent events or earnings. A ratio at either extreme suggests an overly bearish or overly bullish sentiment.

PCR is the proportion of the open interest or trading volume of the put option and the call option over a particular time. The PCR is calculated as put volume over a determined time period dividend by call volume over the same time period. Long-term equity anticipation securities are options contracts with expiration dates that are longer than one year.

put to call ratio

Momentum is another default strategy to measure the put-call option. The put-call ratio is the proportion of the open interest or trading volumes of the put option and the call option over a given period. A ratio of more than one shows hedging emotion, smaller than one implies speculative sentiment, and equal to one denotes a neutral market. Outstanding contracts or open interest give a clear picture of the market movement.

What is a Put-Call Ratio?

Since the PCR is less than one, it indicates that traders are buying more call options than put options which depicts a bullish trend in the future. With all market participants bearish and now sitting on short positions, a very interesting thing takes place – there is nobody left to sell. With nobody left to sell, there is no selling pressure on the market, and they start to drift higher. Now all these market participants will be using some sort of stop loss. Some will use a very tight SL, others may use medium and remaining using wide stop loss. Despite the trend, the smoothed put/call ratio is still useful; however, it is always best to use the previous 52-week highs and lows of the series as critical thresholds.

However, a high PCR indicates an extreme bearish market trend indicating a buying opportunity. Even though it serves as a contrarian indicator, traders must analyze other prominent factors before betting on the prevailing market sentiments. For instance, a very high PCR signals an extreme bearish market sentiment. Also, it signifies that the market may bottom out and show some upward trend. On the other hand, if the PCR is at a very low level, it signals an extreme bullish market.

put to call ratio

The indicator can be placed in the main window or above/below the main window. The example below shows the CBOE Total Put/Call Ratio ($CPC) in the main window with a 10-day SMA for smoothing . Users can also choose “Invisible” for chart “Type” to hide the daily values. This will expand the price scale to fit with the smoothed version (10-day SMA). Horizontal lines can also be added as “Overlays.” A corresponding index can be shown as an “Indicator” to compare the Put/Call Ratio to index movements.

Conversely, call volume increases when the expectations for an advance increase. Sentiment reaches extremes when the Put/Call Ratio moves to relatively high or low levels. A Put/Call Ratio at its lower extremities would show excessive bullishness because call volume would be significantly higher than put volume. In contrarian terms, excessive bullishness would argue for caution and the possibility of a stock market decline.

Put/call ratios are best used in combination with other sentiment indicators and perhaps a price-based (i.e. momentum) indicator. More elaborate mathematical massaging of the data (i.e. de-trending by differencing the series) can also help. When the ratio gets too low , the market is ready for a reversal to the downside . In the chart below, we can see the extremes over the past five years, which shows this measure on a weekly basis, including its smoothed four-week exponential moving average. Generally, NIFTY Put call ratio follows a trend in which it seems to oscillate between 0.8 and 1.3 with 0.8 being the lower band and 1.3 being the upper band.

Interpreting Put-Call Ratio

It is important to identify the extremes and wait for an extreme to be reached. Most of the time, the Put/Call Ratio will fluctuate between these extremes. It is also important to use the Put/Call Ratio in conjunction with other indicators, such as momentum oscillators or chart patterns to confirm signals. Waiting for a little confirmation can often filter out bad signals.

The quantitative value shows the total number of contracts that have yet to be liquidated in the market. It is frequently observed in conjunction with data from the futures and options markets. The best rsi settings for day trading, or PCR is one of the timing and sentiment indicators for the valuation of securities in options trading. A PCR of more than one indicates that traders are purchasing more put options than call options and signals a bearish trend going forward.

Put Call Ratio

Because even a tiny deviation becomes an essential indicator for analyzing the market movement. This tool also helps in analyzing the overall trading behaviour of market participants. The strike price is the price at which the buyer and seller decide to buy/sell the asset at a particular price.

A high ratio can be a sign of a buying opportunity to a contrarian. Contrarian investors use the put-call ratio to help them determine when market participants are getting overly bullish or too bearish. As bullish traders pepperstone review sit on the sidelines, the result by default is that there are more bearish traders in the market. The reliability of this ratio is high because it is based on the outstanding position of traders in the market.

PCR aids traders to understand the direction of the price movement of underlying securities. It must be noted that the put options prove useful for hedging market weaknesses or helping traders to take chances on the market decline. On the other hand, call options are used extensively to hedge against the strong suit of the market or simply to bet on its advances. Here, Put volume indicates the total put options initiated over a specific time-frame. Conversely, Call volume indicates the total call options initiated over a specific time-frame. Here PCR is computed by dividing the put trading volume by the call trading volume on a specific day.